The big bang theory in the Quran
The creation of the universe is explained by astrophysicists in a widely accepted phenomenon, popularly known as the ‘Big Bang’. This theory is supported by observational and experimental data gathered by astronomers and astrophysicists for decades. According to the ‘Big Bang theory’, the whole universe was initially one big mass (Primary Nebula). Then there was a ‘Big Bang’ (Secondary Separation) which resulted in the formation of galaxies. These then divided to form stars, planets, the sun and the moon, among other things. The origin of the universe was unique and the probability of its occurring by ‘chance’ is zero. The Qur’an contains the following verse, regarding the origin of the universe:
Al-Anbiya’ – The Prophets – 21:30 (Surah: 21, Verse: 30)
أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
Do not these unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were an integrated mass, then We split them and made every living thing from water? Will they not believe even then?
Scientists say that before the galaxies in the universe were formed, celestial matter was initially in the form of gaseous matter. In short, huge gaseous matter or clouds were present before the formation of the galaxies. To describe initial celestial matter, the word ‘smoke’ is more appropriate than gas. The following Qur’anic verse refers to this state of the universe by the word dukhaan, which means smoke
Then He (i.e. Allah) rose over towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: “Come [into being] both of you willingly or unwillingly.” They both said: “We come willingly.” (Qur’an 41:11)
In early times people believed that the earth was flat. For centuries, men were afraid to venture out too far, lest they should ‘fall off the edge’. Sir Francis Drake was the first person who proved that the earth is spherical when he sailed around it in 1577. Consider the following Qur’anic verse regarding the alternation of day and night:
See you not that Allah merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night are added to the hours of the day) and merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day are added to the hours of the night). (Qur’an 31:29)
The shape of the earth is spherical-
The following verse also alludes to the spherical shape of the earth: “He created the heavens And the earth In true (proportions): He makes the Night Overlap the Day, and the Day Overlap the Night.” [Al-Qur’aan 39:5] The Arabic word used here is Kawwara meaning ‘to overlap’ or ‘to coil’– the way a turban is wound around the head. The overlapping or coiling of the day and night can only take place if the earth is spherical. The earth is not exactly round like a ball, but geo-spherical i.e. it is flattened at the poles. The following verse contains a description of the earth’s shape:
“And the earth, moreover, Hath He made egg shaped.” 2 [Al-Qur’aan 79:30]
The Arabic word for egg here is dahaha, which means an ostrich-egg. The shape of an ostrich-egg resembles the geo-spherical shape of the earth. Thus the Qur’aan correctly describes the shape of the earth, though the prevalent notion when the Qur’aan was revealed was that the earth is flat.
The sun will extinguish after a certain time-
The light of the sun is due to a chemical process on its surface that has been taking place continuously for the past five billion years. It will come to an end at some point of time in the future when the sun will be totally extinguished leading to extinction of all life on earth. Regarding the impermanence of the sun’s existence the Qur’aan says:
“And the Sun Runs its course For a period determined For it; that is The decree of (Him) The exalted in Might, The All-Knowing.” [Al-Qur’aan 36:38]
The Arabic word used here is mustaqarr, which means a place or time that is determined. Thus the Qur’aan says that the sun runs towards a determined place, and will do so only up to a pre-determined period of time – meaning that it will end or extinguish.
The moon reflects light from the sun-
It was believed by earlier civilizations that the moon emanates its own light. Science now tells us that the light of the moon is reflected light. However this fact was mentioned in the Qur’aan 1,400 years ago in the following verse:.
“Blessed is He Who made Constellations in the skies, And placed therein a Lamp And a Moon giving light.” [Al-Qur’aan 25:61]
The Arabic word for the sun in the Qur’aan, is shams. It is referred to as siraaj, which means a ‘torch’ or as wahhaaj which means ‘a blazing lamp’ or as diya which means ‘shining glory’. All three descriptions are appropriate to the sun, since it generates intense heat and light by its internal combustion. The Arabic word for the moon is qamar and it is described in the Qur’aan as muneer, which is a body that gives nur i.e. light. Again, the Qur’aanic description matches perfectly with the true nature of the moon, which does not give off light itself and is an inert body that reflects the light of the sun. Not once in the Qur’aan, is the moon mentioned as siraaj, wahhaaj or diya or the sun as nur or muneer. This implies that the Qur’aan recognizes the difference between the nature of sunlight and moonlight.
The water cycle-
In 1580, Bernard Palissy was the first man to describe the present day concept of ‘water cycle’. He described how water evaporates from the oceans and cools to form clouds. The clouds move inland where they rise, condense and fall as rain. This water gathers as lakes and streams and flows back to the ocean in a continuous cycle. In the 7th century B.C., Thales of Miletus believed that surface spray of the oceans was picked up by the wind and carried inland to fall as rain. In earlier times people did not know the source of underground water. They thought the water of the oceans, under the effect of winds, was thrust towards the interior of the continents. They also believed that the water returned by a secret passage, or the Great Abyss. This passage is connected to the oceans and has been called the ‘Tartarus’, since Plato’s time. Even Descartes, a great thinker of the eighteenth century, subscribed to this view. Till the nineteenth century, Aristotle’s theory was prevalent. According to this theory, water was condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed springs. Today, we know that the rainwater that seeps into the cracks of the ground is responsible for this. The water cycle is described by the Qur’aan in the following verses:
“Seest thou not that Allah Sends down rain from The sky, and leads it Through springs in the earth? Then He causes to grow, Therewith, produce of various Colours.” [Al-Qur’aan 39:21]
“He sends down rain From the sky And with it gives life to The earth after it is dead: Verily in that are Signs For those who are wise.” [AlQur’aan 30:24]
“And We send down water From the sky according to (Due) measure, and We cause it To soak in the soil; And We certainly are able To drain it off (with ease).” [Al-Qur’aan 23:18]
Consider the following Qur’aanic verse-
“Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one Unit of Creation), before We clove them asunder? We amade from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?” [Al-Qur’aan 21:30]
Only after advances have been made in science, do we now know that cytoplasm, the basic substance of the cell is made up of 80% water. Modern research has also revealed that most organisms consist of 50% to 90% water and that every living entity requires water for its existence. Was it possible 14 centuries ago for any human-being to guess that every living being was made of water? Moreover would such a guess be conceivable by a human being in the deserts of Arabia where there has always been scarcity of water? The following verse refers to the creation of animals from water:
“And Allah has created Every animal from water.” [Al-Qur’aan 24:45] The following verse refers to the creation of human beings from water: “It is He Who has Created man from water: Then has He established Relationships of lineage And marriage: for thy Lord Has power (over all things).” [Al-Qur’aan 25:54]
Fruits created in pairs, male and female-
“And fruit Of every kind He made In pairs, two and two.” [Al-Qur’aan 13:3]
Fruit is the end product of reproduction of the superior plants. The stage preceding fruit is the flower, which has male and female organs (stamens and ovules). Once pollen has been carried to the flower, they bear fruit, which in turn matures and frees its seed. All fruits therefore imply the existence of male and female organs; a fact that is mentioned in the Qur’aan. In certain species, fruit can come from non-fertilized flowers (parthenocarpic fruit) e.g. bananas, certain types of pineapple, fig, orange, vine, etc. They also have definite sexual characteristics.
Honey has healing properties-
The bee assimilates juices of various kinds of flowers and fruit and forms within its body the honey, which it stores in its cells of wax. Only a couple of centuries ago man came to know that honey comes from the belly of the bee. This fact was mentioned in the Qur’aan 1,400 years ago in the following verse:
“There issues From within their bodies A drink of varying colours, Wherein is healing for men.” [Al-Qur’aan 16:69]
We are now aware that honey has a healing property and also a mild antiseptic property. The Russians used honey to cover their wounds in World War II. The wound would retain moisture and would leave very little scar tissue. Due to the density of honey, no fungus or bacteria would grow in the wound. A person suffering from an allergy of a particular plant may be given honey from that plant so that the person develops resistance to that allergy. Honey is rich in fructose and vitamin K. Thus the knowledge contained in the Qur’aan regarding honey, its origin and properties, was far ahead of the time it was revealed.
Man created from a drop emitted from between the backbone and the ribs-
“Now let man but think From what he is created! He is created from A drop emitted – Proceeding from between The back bone and the ribs.” [Al-Qur’aan 86:5-7]
In embryonic stages, the reproductive organs of the male and female, i.e. the testicles and the ovaries, begin their development near the kidney between the spinal column and the eleventh and twelfth ribs. Later they descend; the female gonads (ovaries) stop in the pelvis while the male gonads (testicles) continue their descent before birth to reach the scrotum through the inguinal canal. Even in the adult after the descent of the reproductive organ, these organs receive their nerve supply and blood supply from the Abdominal Aorta, which is in the area between the backbone (spinal column) and the ribs. Even the lymphatic drainage and the venous return goes to the same area.
If Quran has one- mistake it is not from God:
Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than God, they would surely have found therein much contradiction (4:82)
God says to doubters…If you doubt my book then produce like one:
If you are in doubt about the revelation (Quran) we have sent down to our servant (Muhammad), then produce a single Surah (chapter) like therein (2:23).
Creation of human being in the womb:
Then we made sperm drop into a clot, then we made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then out of little lump of flesh we made bones, then we made the bones with flesh, and then we brought it forth as another creation. So blessed be God, the Best of creators. (23: 12-14).
Modern Concept of Expanding Universe:
We constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is we who are steadily expanding it. (51:47).
Human beings have innovated new religions, and ways of worship. But in his last message; God has clearly defined the way to reach him and warned the mankind about the wrong way following verses
Indeed, the religion in the sight of God is Islam (3:19).
And whoever desires other than Islam as religion – never will it be accepted from him (3:85)
There is no compulsion in religion: guidance is distinct from error (2:256)
And whoever disbelieves – upon him will be [the consequence of] his disbelief (35:39).
But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness we shall soon admit to gardens (4:57)